Even though housing is a basic necessity of life, more than half of the population in Ghana live in poor houses where they have no access to adequate sanitary facilities, water and warmth to meet their daily physical needs. Adequate housing is one of the effective means to alleviate poverty because shelter is usually the most expensive item for households.
This report reviews the Property Tax Regimes in East African Countries namely Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. The three countries are all former colonies of Britain and have had different development experiences since their independence and still have different bases of property taxation (more…)
Economies of agglomeration and economies of scale are the two major
benefits of urbanization, but despite a global trend towards urbanization,
high population density—a key condition for realizing economies of agglomeration—
is far from ubiquitous.
In sub-Saharan Africa, in 2014 over half of the
urban population (55.9 per cent) lived in slums,
and by 2050, Africa’s urban dwellers are projected
to have increased from 201 million in 2014 to
The primary problem for small and
medium-sized cities in developing countries is the
large time lag between the initial investment in infrastructure
and the return on this investment in the
form of development fees and tax revenues reaped
from infrastructure-enabled economic growth.
Modern infrastructure is a key component in achieving the SDGs, and
meeting only the basic infrastructure investment needs of developing countries amounts to an estimated US$1 trillion to $1.5 trillion annually.
This chapter examines the role real estate development
plays in emerging cities. It begins with a
discussion of the merits of managed urban growth.
It then discusses how cities can use planning and
asset management to create and capture value.
This chapter briefly reviews the instruments commonly used to engage in land value
sharing and raise revenue based on land value and land attributes. Both theory and
practice support the use of land-based revenue sources. However, the challenges
associated with effective implementation should not be understated
It is critical that cities begin to plan in advance of urban expansion. Such planning must specify the urban spatial patterns that reinforce economic efficiency, social integration, and environmental protection. These patterns are compact, connected, and mixed.